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Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Watser?
Published by Watser?
08-01-2008
Tablet Endnotes

Endnotes


1 Norton, Augustus Richard, Amal and the Shi’a, Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Austin 1987), p. 136.

2 Petran, Tabitha, The Struggle Over Lebanon (New York 1987) p. 33 and Cobban, Helena, The Making of Modern Lebanon (London 1985) p. 70-71.

3 Rizq, Rizq, Rashid Karami – as-siyasi wa rajul ad-dawla (Beirut year unknown) p. 62-64 and Petran, Struggle p. 50-51.

4 Petran, Struggle p. 51.

5 Mansfield, Peter, The Arabs (Second edition) (Harmondsworth, UK 1985) p. 258-264.

6 Petran, Struggle p. 55-56 and Azmeh, Aziz al, The Progressive Forces, in: Owen, Roger (Ed.) Essays on the Crisis in Lebanon (London 1976) p. 62

7 Norton, Augustus Richard, Lebanon after Ta’if: is the civil war over? in Middle East Journal (Summer 1991) p. 463

8 Fiches du Monde Arabe (Beirut/Nicosia 1976-1983) I-L30, 10-12-1980 No 1762 and Johnson, Michael, Class & Client in Beirut – The Sunni Muslim Community and the Lebanese State 1840-1985 (London 1986) p. 26-27.

9 Johnson, Class & Client p 100.

10 Ibid. p. 49-50.

11 Rizq, Karami p 15 and 21

12 Johnson, Michael, Factional Politics in Lebanon: The case of the ‘Islamic Society of Benevolent Intentions’ (Al Maqasid) in Beirut. in: Middle Eastern Studies (January 1978) p. 57.

13 Ibid. p. 60.

14 Ibid. p64.

15 Johnson, Class & Client p. 82-83 and Petran, Struggle p. 35-36.

16 Johnson, Class & Client p. 141 and Azmeh, Aziz al, Progressive Forces p. 63 and Salibi, Kamal S, Crossroads to Civil War, Lebanon 1958-1976 (New York 1976) p. 11.

17 Johnson, Class & Client p. 84.

18 Ibid. p. 178.

19 Ibid. p. 151.

20 Ibid. p. 167-169.

21 Eickelman, Dale F, The Middle East, An Anthropological Approach (Second Edition) (New Jersey 1989) p. 219.

22 Johnson, Class & Client p. 171.

23 Cobban, Making p.116-117.

24 Johnson, Class & Client p. 122

25 Petran, Struggle p. 72, 125 and 163 and Norton, Amal p. 137.

26 The whole section on political parties is based on Chamussy, René, Chronique d’une Guerre – Le Liban 1975-1977 (Paris 1978) p. 212-224 and Odeh, B J, Lebanon: Dynamics of Conflict – A Modern Political History (London 1985) p. 213-217 unless stated otherwise.

27 Petran, Struggle p. 41-42 and 51.

28 Ibid. p. 42-45 and Cobban, Making p 67-68.

29 Petran, Struggle p. 47-48

30 Ismael, Tareq, The Arab Left (New York 1976) p. 62-70.

31 FMA I L41, 25-06-1979 No 1329.

32 Salabi, Crossroads p. 76.

33 Ibid. p. 77 and Johnson, Class & Client p. 168.

34 Petran, Struggle p. 122.

35 Chamussy, Chronique p.214.

36 Odeh, Lebanon p 213.

37 FMA I-L41, 25-06-1979 No 1329.

38 Johnson, Class & Client p.179-180.

39 Petran, Struggle p. 125

40 Johnson, Class & Client p. 179-180.

41 Estimates 1970 FMA I-L20, 08-10-1980 No 1710. Estimate in camps 1970: Cooley, John K, The Palestinians in: Haley, P Edward/Snider, Lewis W (Ed.) Lebanon in Crisis – Participants and Issues (Syracuse, NY 1979) p. 115. UNRWA figures and estimates based on them: FMA I-L20, 08-10-1980 No 1710. Estimates 1982, Cobban, Helena, The Palestinian Liberation Organisation – People, Power and Politics (Cambridge 1984) p. 9

42 FMA I-L16, 24-09-1980 No 1698.

43 Quandt, William/Jabber, Fuad/Moseley Lesch, Ann, The Politics of Palestinian Nationalism (Berkely 1973) p. 65 and Cobban, PLO p.23 and 33.

44 Cobban, PLO p. 161.

45 Ibid. p. 157.

46 Ibid. p. 163 and Quandt/Jabber/Moseley Lesch, Palestinian Nationalism p. 67.

47 Cobban, PLO p. 12 and Chamussy, Chronique p. 225-226.

48 Ismael, Arab Left p. 157.

49 Quandt/Jabber/Moseley Lesch, Palestinian Nationalism p. 66.

50 Cobban, PLO p. 149-152.

51 FMA I-L15, 28-09-1983 No 2304.

52 Ibid.

53 Petran, Struggle p. 75-76 and 103-104.

54 Ibid. p. 107-108.

55 FMA I-L18, 05-10-1983 No 2311.

56 FMA I-L19, 12-10-1983 No 2314 and Petran, Struggle p.144-145.

57 FMA I-L19, 12-10-1983 No 2314.

58 Ibid.

59 Petran, Struggle p. 145-146 and FMA I-L39, 18-12-1976 No 429 and I-L41, 25-06-1979 No 1329.

60 Petran, Struggle p. 151.

61 Ibid. p. 183-184 and Salibi, Crossroads p. 149.

62 Petran, Struggle p. 199.

63 Ibid. p. 220.

64 Minority Rights Group (MRG) Report nr. 61 p. 15.

65 Gilmour, David Lebanon, The Fractured Country (Revised edition) (London 1987) p. 160

66 Cobban, Making p.184-185.

67 Petran, Struggle p. 283 and MRG Report nr. 61 p 16.

68 Petran, Struggle p. 343

69 Johnson, Class & Client p. 71.

70 Petran, Struggle p. 173.

71 Ismael, Arab Left p. 70 and 90.

72 FMA I-L39, 18-02-1976 No 429.

73 Cooley, Palestinians p. 36.

74 Chamussy, Chronique p. 219 and 230.

75 Cobban, Making p. 126

76 al-Muslimun fi Lubnan wa-al-Harb al-Ahliya, (edited by) Dar al-Fatwa (Beirut 1978) p. 92, 262, 269 and 276.

77 Cobban, PLO p. 156 and FMA II-P8, 0804-1981 No 1866.

78 Hudson, Michael, The Palestinian Factor in the Lebanese Civil War in: Middle East Journal (Summer 1978) p. 272.

79 Johnson, Class & Client p. 192.

80 Rabinovich, Itamar, The Limits of Military Power: Syria’s Role in: Haley, P Edward/Snider, Lewis W (Ed.) Lebanon in Crisis – Participants and Issues (Syracuse, NY 1979) p. 60.

81 Cobban, PLO p. 71 and FMA II-P6, 09-07-1980 No 1633.

82 Petran, Struggle p. 201.

83 Corm, Georges, Geopolitique du Conflit Libanais – Etude Historique et Sociologique (Paris 1986) p. 141 and Kuderna, Michael, Christliche Gruppen im Libanon: Kampf um Ideologie und Herrschaft in Einer unfertigen Nation (Wiesbaden 1983) p. 226-230.

84 FMA I-L1, 14-09-1983 No 2289.

85 Petran, Struggle p. 206.

86 FMA I-L1, 14-09-1983 No 2289.

87 Petran, Struggle p 371.

88 Ibid. p. 373 and MRG Report nr. 61 p. 17-18.

89 Bannerman, M Graeme, Saudi Arabia in: Lebanon in Crisis p. 125.

90 Petran, Struggle p. 353.

91 Cooley, Palestinians p. 43.

92 Petran, Struggle p. 327.

93 Ibid. p. 329.

94 Norton, Amal p. 97 and Bailey, Clinton, Lebanon’s Shi’a After the 1982 War in: Kramer, Martin (Ed.) Shi’ism, Resistance and Revolution (Boulder, Colorado 1987) p. 224.

95 Petran, Struggle p 313.

96 Ibid. p. 331 and Johnson, Class & Client p. 207.

97 Bailey, Lebanon’s Shi’a p. 225 and Petran, Struggle, p. 332

98 Bailey, Lebanon’s Shi’a p. 226 and Petran, Struggle, p. 348-349.

99 In August of 1991 Nabih Berri, then a government minister, resigned as a protest against a visit to Lebanon by the Libyan prime-minister: Egyptian Gazette 01-09-1991 in Actueller Informationsdienst Moderner Orient (1983-1992).

100 Arab News 21-04-1985 and Jordan Times 21-04-1985 in AIMO and Johnson, Class & Client p. 212-213.

101 MRG Report nr. 61 p. 19.

102 Ibid. and Petran, Struggle p. 362-364.

103 Petran, Struggle p. 367.

104 L’Orient-le Jour 30-08-1991 in AIMO.

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid. and Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 460-461.

107 Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 467.

108 L’Orient-le Jour 30-08-1991 in AIMO.

109 Ibid.

110 Cobban, Making p. 116-117.

111 In 1860 an uprising by Maronite peasants against their Druze landlords turned to sectarian violence with Druze slaughtering Maronites. Christians were killed by Muslims in Damascus too.

112 Petran, Struggle p. 166.

113 Kuderna, Christliche Gruppen p. 201.

114 Bizri-Bawab, Dalal, Le Mouvement Ibad al Rahman et ses Prolongements à Tripoli in: Carré, Olivier/Dumont, Paul (Ed.), Radicalismes Islamiques Tome 1-Iran, Liban, Turquie (Paris 1985) p. 203.

115 Petran, Struggle p. 208.

116 Ibid. p. 227.

117 Cobban, Making p. 154.

118 Ibid. p. 183.

119 Ibid. p. 200.

120 Ibid. and Petran, Struggle p. 320-321.

121 Norton, Amal p. 23.

122 Ibid. p. 42.

123 Ibid. p. 57-58.

124 Bailey, Lebanon’s Shi’a p. 230

125 Norton, Amal p. 88

126 Jordan Times 28-07-1992 in AIMO.

127 Gilmour, Lebanon p. 139.

128 Jordan Times 17-02-1985 and Turkish Daily News 02-07-1991 in AIMO and MRG Report nr. 61 and Norton, Amal p. 137.

129 Bizri-Bawab, Ibad al Rahman p. 203 and Petran, Struggle p. 340-341.

130 Bizri-Bawab, Ibad al Rahman p. 203.

131 Odeh, Lebanon p. 216.

132 Bizri-Bawab, Ibad al Rahman p. 203.

133 Petran, Struggle p. 341.

134 Bizri-Bawab, Ibad al Rahman p. 212-213.

135 Sivan, Emmanuel, Islamic Radicalism: Sunni and Shi’ite in: Siva, Emmanuel/Friedman, Menachem, Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East (New York 1990) p. 55

136 Norton, Amal p. 138

137 Tehran Times 12-11-1987 in: AIMO.

138 Ibid. 03-11-1987 in: AIMO.

139 Johnson, Class & Client p. 182.

140 Aziz al-Azmeh, The Progressive Forces p. 71.

141 Norton, Amal p. 136-137.

142 Ibid.

143 Ibid. p.38.

144 Ibid. p.106 and Petran, Struggle p. 375.

145 Johnson, Class & Client p. 203-205.

146 Arab News 03-06-1991 in AIMO.

147 Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 462-463.

148 Ibid.

149 Arab News 08-06-1991 in AIMO.

150 The reason it was decided to increase the number of seats every time, instead of redistributing the existing ones, is that in the latter case some zu’ama would lose their districts.

151 Figures for 1972 and the Ta’if Accord: Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 463, figures for 1992: Bahout, Joseph, Liban: Les Elections Législatives de l’été 1992 in: Monde arabe Maghreb Machrek No 139 (January-March 1993) p. 59.

152 MRG Report No 61 p. 9

153 Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 464.

154 Norton, Amal p 61.

155 Norton, Lebanon after Ta’if p. 471.

156 Arab News 26-04-1991 and 31-05-1991 in AIMO.

157 Ibid. 26-06-1991 in AIMO.

158 Jordan Times 28-06-1992 in AIMO.

159 Le Point 10-06-1993 p. 37.

160 Le Monde Dossiers & Documents No 212 July-August 1993 p. 10.

161 Jordan Times 01-07-1992 in AIMO.

162 All the information about the elections is from Bahout, Les élections p. 82-84. Bahout gives a list with for every seat the name, sect and possible party affiliation of the person who won the seat.

163 FMA I-L30, 10-12-1980 No 1762.
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  #1  
By Watser? on 12-27-2010, 01:10 AM
News Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

Here's a story from the Lebanese press about one former member of Tawhid who was murdered Saturday in the Palestinian camp Ain al Hilweh, near Sidon.
Quote:
Located on the outskirts of the coastal city of Sidon, Ain al-Hilweh, like most other Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, does not fall under the control of the Lebanese government but under that of local Palestinian armed factions.

The camp saw normal activity Sunday morning, one day after the body of Ghandi Sahmarani, a member in the disbanded Jund al-Sham Islamist group was found.

Security sources said that Sahmarani, who is a Lebanese citizen wanted by Lebanese authorities, was found hand cuffed, leg cuffed and struck by a sharp device on the head. Sahmarani who hasn’t shown up for a long time, used to live in the Taamir neighborhood, which lies to the north of the camp, and which is considered a stronghold for Salafi Islamists. The area falls under the influence of Osbat al-Ansar, an Islamist group.

The fugitive was a member of Al-Tawhid al-Islami movement in the 1980’s, during which he participated in the fierce battles that broke out between the movement and the Syrian Army in Tripoli. He left Tripoli in 1987 and moved to Sidon where he joined a number of fundamentalist movements including Osbat al-Ansar and Jund al-Sham. After the disbandment of Jund al-Sham, Sahmarani joined Fatah al-Islam.

Sahmarani reportedly sheltered a number of Islamists who fled the northern Dinnieh district after taking part in the clashes that erupted between their comrades and the Lebanese Army in the district in 2000.

As a member of Jund al-Sham, the group fought the Lebanese Army several times. Armed clashes broke out between the two around Ain al-Hilweh in 2007, when the army was fighting Fatah al-Islam in the northern Palestinian refugee camp of Nahr al-Bared.
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  #2  
By Watser? on 10-28-2014, 01:10 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

Quote:
"The army has taken over Bab al-Tebbaneh," said the spokesman, adding that troops had captured 162 fighters since Friday.

The army urged other fighters still at large to turn themselves in.

The soldiers carried out house-to-house searches and made several weapons seizures.

A 72-year-old woman said she had never before been forced out of Bab al-Tebbaneh, "not even during the civil war. But this time, I had to flee my house, along with my five grandchildren. I am in charge of them, because their father is in jail", said Umm Mohammed Jaaburi. "The violence was unprecedented," she said.
Lebanon army back in control of Tripoli
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  #3  
By Watser? on 10-30-2014, 02:36 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

Quote:
No two people would disagree about the outcome of the most recent round of clashes in Tripoli. The army was able to defeat the gunmen. The outcome is unambiguous, at least in terms of appearances. The Lebanese army succeeded in driving the gunmen underground and removed all signs of their former existence. It set up checkpoints and carried out raids in areas that were forbidden to it in the past even if it cost the lives of 12 officers and soldiers, while there were no heavy casualties among the gunmen.
Jihadi groups in north Lebanon admit to defeat in battle against the army | Al Akhbar English
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