Go Back   Freethought Forum > The Library > Articles & Essays > Politics

Article Tools Display Modes
Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Published by Watser?
Tablet Aoun’s revolt/Ta’if Accord

Aoun’s revolt/Ta’if Accord

In September of 1988, a new dimension was added to the conflict in Lebanon. A new president had to be elected because Amine Gemayel’s term of office was drawing to a close. Under extreme pressure by Samir Geagea’s Lebanese Forces, parliament rejected the candidate supported by Syria. At the very last moment (10 minutes before his term ended),104 Gemayel appointed army chief Michel Aoun prime-minister of a military government. The outgoing government of Salim al-Hoss which was supported by Syria considered itself the legal government of Lebanon.

This was an entirely new twist to the Lebanese Civil War. Though war had raged for thirteen years, and it had looked like division was inevitable, there had always been only one government, no matter how lacking in authority. In February of 1989, Aoun brought the area ruled by the LF under his control and on 14 March, he started his ‘war of liberation’ against the Syrians which was supported by the LF.105

The support that both Aoun and the LF received from Iraq summoned the fear of a direct confrontation between Syria and Iraq among the Arab states. On 26 May, the Arab League appointed a committee consisting of king Fahd of Saudi Arabia, king Hassan of Morocco and president Chadli Bendjedid of Algeria. This committee was charged with finding a political solution to the Lebanese crisis. On 22 September, the three heads of state managed to secure a ceasefire and from 30 September onward, 62 members of the Lebanese parliament met in Ta’if in Saudi Arabia under the auspices of the Arab League. These parliamentarians, consisting of as many Christians as Muslims, presented the Ta’if Accord on 22 October. Aoun rejected the Accord because it legitimised the Syrian presences.106 On 5 November, the accord was ratified by parliament and a new president was elected: René Muawwad. Muawwad however was murdered in west Beirut 17 days later. The killers, as with so many assassinations in Lebanon, have never been caught. On 24 November, Ilyas Hrawi was elected as his successor and he appointed Salim al-Hoss as his prime-minister.

Although Aoun continued to reject Ta’if, Samir Geagea accepted it. At the end of January, 1990, Aoun attacked the Lebanese Forces. In this fight, Aoun was supported by Syria.107 That proves again that Syria’s only goal in Lebanon was to make sure that no single party got the upper hand. The clashes lasted until May 1990 and killed 4000.108

Eventually Aoun was defeated by Syria in October of 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait had thoroughly changed the regional balance of power and Aoun fled to the French embassy. The Lebanese government asked for his extradition for embezzlement of state funds. On 27 August 1991, an agreement was reached giving Aoun amnesty. In exchange he had to leave the country within 48 hours and was not allowed to enter Lebanon nor be politically active for 5 years.109


Article Tools

Featured Articles
Thanks, from:
curses (08-02-2008), Sophia (01-22-2011), Stormlight (08-01-2008)
By Watser? on 12-27-2010, 12:10 AM
News Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

Here's a story from the Lebanese press about one former member of Tawhid who was murdered Saturday in the Palestinian camp Ain al Hilweh, near Sidon.
Located on the outskirts of the coastal city of Sidon, Ain al-Hilweh, like most other Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, does not fall under the control of the Lebanese government but under that of local Palestinian armed factions.

The camp saw normal activity Sunday morning, one day after the body of Ghandi Sahmarani, a member in the disbanded Jund al-Sham Islamist group was found.

Security sources said that Sahmarani, who is a Lebanese citizen wanted by Lebanese authorities, was found hand cuffed, leg cuffed and struck by a sharp device on the head. Sahmarani who hasn’t shown up for a long time, used to live in the Taamir neighborhood, which lies to the north of the camp, and which is considered a stronghold for Salafi Islamists. The area falls under the influence of Osbat al-Ansar, an Islamist group.

The fugitive was a member of Al-Tawhid al-Islami movement in the 1980’s, during which he participated in the fierce battles that broke out between the movement and the Syrian Army in Tripoli. He left Tripoli in 1987 and moved to Sidon where he joined a number of fundamentalist movements including Osbat al-Ansar and Jund al-Sham. After the disbandment of Jund al-Sham, Sahmarani joined Fatah al-Islam.

Sahmarani reportedly sheltered a number of Islamists who fled the northern Dinnieh district after taking part in the clashes that erupted between their comrades and the Lebanese Army in the district in 2000.

As a member of Jund al-Sham, the group fought the Lebanese Army several times. Armed clashes broke out between the two around Ain al-Hilweh in 2007, when the army was fighting Fatah al-Islam in the northern Palestinian refugee camp of Nahr al-Bared.
Reply With Quote
By Watser? on 10-28-2014, 01:10 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

"The army has taken over Bab al-Tebbaneh," said the spokesman, adding that troops had captured 162 fighters since Friday.

The army urged other fighters still at large to turn themselves in.

The soldiers carried out house-to-house searches and made several weapons seizures.

A 72-year-old woman said she had never before been forced out of Bab al-Tebbaneh, "not even during the civil war. But this time, I had to flee my house, along with my five grandchildren. I am in charge of them, because their father is in jail", said Umm Mohammed Jaaburi. "The violence was unprecedented," she said.
Lebanon army back in control of Tripoli
Reply With Quote
By Watser? on 10-30-2014, 02:36 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

No two people would disagree about the outcome of the most recent round of clashes in Tripoli. The army was able to defeat the gunmen. The outcome is unambiguous, at least in terms of appearances. The Lebanese army succeeded in driving the gunmen underground and removed all signs of their former existence. It set up checkpoints and carried out raids in areas that were forbidden to it in the past even if it cost the lives of 12 officers and soldiers, while there were no heavy casualties among the gunmen.
Jihadi groups in north Lebanon admit to defeat in battle against the army | Al Akhbar English
Reply With Quote

  Freethought Forum > The Library > Articles & Essays > Politics

Currently Active Users Viewing This Article: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
Article Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT +1. The time now is 09:28 PM.

Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.2
Copyright ©2000 - 2021, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.

Article powered by GARS 2.1.8m ©2005-2006
Page generated in 1.49948 seconds with 14 queries