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Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War
Published by Watser?
Tablet Enforcing the accord/Militias and foreign troops

Enforcing the accord

The Saudi and Syrian influence on the Ta’if Accord was great. The Saudi pressure is one of the main reasons that the power of the Shi’ites is still limited and that the power of the Sunnis has increased. The pressure by the Syrian regime, which is dominated by Alawites, has resulted in the overrepresentation of the Alawites in parliament.153
The Saudi’s could bring a lot of pressure to the table because both Lebanon and Syria depend on Saudi financial support.

It is striking that the sectarian groups with the strongest militias have done relatively bad. The Maronites had to give up a lot of their power and the Shi’ites saw their power increased but they are still underrepresented. Nothing much changed for the Druze. That the accord was enforced after all is due to the division amongst the Maronites and the changes in the Middle

East after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The division amongst the Maronites between Hobeika’s militia, Aoun’s followers and Samir Geagea’s Lebanese Forces meant that Syria could play the Maronites against each other. Hobeika was depending on Syrian support and accepted the accord. The Lebanese Forces had been seriously weakened by Aoun and accepted it as well. That meant that among the Maronites, Aoun was the only opponent left. Aoun however depended on Iraqi support. After the invasion of Kuwait, Iraq was not able to focus on Lebanon, and Syria got the green light by Saudi Arabia and the US to defeat Aoun.

On the Shi’ite side, Amal accepted Ta’if. Amal had called for the restoration of the power of the Lebanese state154 and it was therefore no surprise that the militia accepted it. Hezbollah’s goal is an Islamic State, but it was weakened because the Iranian support had decreased after bloody fighting between Amal and Hezbollah in 1988.155 Moreover, Hezbollah’s headquarters is in the Bekaa Valley, which made it hard for them to fight the accord.

Militias and foreign troops

In the Ta’if Accord there was a timetable for the disarmament of the militias. This would commence six months after the accord took effect. After two years the Syrian troops would withdraw to the Bekaa Valley. The accord took effect in September of 1990, when parliament adopted constitutional changes based on int. The disarmament of the militias commenced in April of 1991 and went well, although both the PSP and the Lebanese Forces partially handed over their weapons to the countries that had armed them: Syria and Israel respectively.156 In July of 1992, some buildings that had been occupied by militias were taken over by the Lebanese army, among them the headquarters and the television station of the Lebanese Forces.157 At the same time, Hezbollah’s headquarters, the Sheikh Abdallah barracks in Baalbek, was taken over by the army.158 The fact that Hezbollah cooperated with its disarmament is tied to the decision to participate in the elections.

The Syrian withdrawal that Ta’if mentioned also, did not take place. In an interview in July of 1993, the Lebanese prime minister, Rafik al-Hariri, tied this withdrawal to the build-up of the Lebanese army. He claimed he would ask the Syrians to withdraw as soon as he was ready (and that they would leave when he did).159

In southern Lebanon, Israel still occupies a strip of land, which it describes as a ‘security zone’. In this area there are about 1000 Israeli soldiers and security service members. There are also about 3000 members of the Israeli puppet militia, the South Lebanese Army. To the north of them there are 5764 UNIFIL soldiers.160 The area occupied by Israel is about 10% of the Lebanese territory. The Israeli and SLA soldiers in the area are attacked regularly by Palestinian and Lebanese guerrillas, particularly Hezbollah, but also Amal and the SSNP.

The problem in the south is that Israel considers the attacks a reason to carry on with the occupation, while Hezbollah and the other groups consider the occupation a reason to continue their attacks. This means the prospects for peace in southern Lebanon are still not good.


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Thanks, from:
curses (08-02-2008), Sophia (01-22-2011), Stormlight (08-01-2008)
By Watser? on 12-27-2010, 12:10 AM
News Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

Here's a story from the Lebanese press about one former member of Tawhid who was murdered Saturday in the Palestinian camp Ain al Hilweh, near Sidon.
Located on the outskirts of the coastal city of Sidon, Ain al-Hilweh, like most other Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, does not fall under the control of the Lebanese government but under that of local Palestinian armed factions.

The camp saw normal activity Sunday morning, one day after the body of Ghandi Sahmarani, a member in the disbanded Jund al-Sham Islamist group was found.

Security sources said that Sahmarani, who is a Lebanese citizen wanted by Lebanese authorities, was found hand cuffed, leg cuffed and struck by a sharp device on the head. Sahmarani who hasn’t shown up for a long time, used to live in the Taamir neighborhood, which lies to the north of the camp, and which is considered a stronghold for Salafi Islamists. The area falls under the influence of Osbat al-Ansar, an Islamist group.

The fugitive was a member of Al-Tawhid al-Islami movement in the 1980’s, during which he participated in the fierce battles that broke out between the movement and the Syrian Army in Tripoli. He left Tripoli in 1987 and moved to Sidon where he joined a number of fundamentalist movements including Osbat al-Ansar and Jund al-Sham. After the disbandment of Jund al-Sham, Sahmarani joined Fatah al-Islam.

Sahmarani reportedly sheltered a number of Islamists who fled the northern Dinnieh district after taking part in the clashes that erupted between their comrades and the Lebanese Army in the district in 2000.

As a member of Jund al-Sham, the group fought the Lebanese Army several times. Armed clashes broke out between the two around Ain al-Hilweh in 2007, when the army was fighting Fatah al-Islam in the northern Palestinian refugee camp of Nahr al-Bared.
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By Watser? on 10-28-2014, 01:10 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

"The army has taken over Bab al-Tebbaneh," said the spokesman, adding that troops had captured 162 fighters since Friday.

The army urged other fighters still at large to turn themselves in.

The soldiers carried out house-to-house searches and made several weapons seizures.

A 72-year-old woman said she had never before been forced out of Bab al-Tebbaneh, "not even during the civil war. But this time, I had to flee my house, along with my five grandchildren. I am in charge of them, because their father is in jail", said Umm Mohammed Jaaburi. "The violence was unprecedented," she said.
Lebanon army back in control of Tripoli
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By Watser? on 10-30-2014, 02:36 PM
Default Re: Lebanon's Sunnis and the Civil War

No two people would disagree about the outcome of the most recent round of clashes in Tripoli. The army was able to defeat the gunmen. The outcome is unambiguous, at least in terms of appearances. The Lebanese army succeeded in driving the gunmen underground and removed all signs of their former existence. It set up checkpoints and carried out raids in areas that were forbidden to it in the past even if it cost the lives of 12 officers and soldiers, while there were no heavy casualties among the gunmen.
Jihadi groups in north Lebanon admit to defeat in battle against the army | Al Akhbar English
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